Schleswig-Holstein

A German postage stamp conmemorating the Bonn-Copenhagen Declarations Schleswig-Holstein (; ; ; ) is the northernmost of the 16 states of Germany, comprising most of the historical Duchy of Holstein and the southern part of the former Duchy of Schleswig. Its capital city is Kiel; other notable cities are Lübeck and Flensburg. It covers an area of , making it the 5th smallest German federal state by area (including the city-states).

Historically, the name can also refer to a larger region, containing both present-day Schleswig-Holstein and the former South Jutland County (Northern Schleswig; now part of the Region of Southern Denmark) in Denmark.

Schleswig was under Danish control during the Viking Age, but in the 12th century it escaped full control and became a duchy. It bordered Holstein, which was a part of the Holy Roman Empire. Beginning in 1460, both Schleswig and Holstein were ruled together by the Danish king acting as duke of both Schleswig and Holstein, with the latter being part of the Holy Roman Empire. In the 19th century, both Danes and Germans claimed Schleswig-Holstein. Holstein was entirely ethnic German, while Schleswig was predominantly Danish-speaking until the late 1700 and early 1800s. During this period, a linguistic shift began in southern Schleswig, transitioning from Danish to German. This change divided the region into a German-speaking south and a Danish-speaking north. The resulting long-term political and territorial dispute was known as the Schleswig-Holstein Question. In 1848, Denmark tried to formally annex Schleswig into the Kingdom. Prussia responded by invading, thus starting the First Schleswig War, which ended in a victory for Denmark and the signing of the 1852 London Protocol. The conflict broke out again in 1864 (the Second Schleswig War), and this time Prussia and Austria won and the territory was absorbed into Prussia in 1867. More than 50 years later, after the German defeat in World War I, the Allies mandated the return of Schleswig to Denmark, while France advocated for the new border to extend as far south as the Kiel Canal. Denmark suggested instead to decide the matter through plebiscites, leading to the 1920 Schleswig plebiscites, which resulted in the return of the Danish-speaking North Schleswig to Denmark. After World War II, a significant movement emerged in Denmark, supported by the Danish-speaking minority in South Schleswig. This group rallied support to annex South Schleswig, gathering 200,000 signatures in just four days to petition the Danish government for annexation. However, the Danish government declined this request, citing the legitimacy of the 1920 plebiscites which had established the current borders. They argued that the results of these plebiscites should stand, making the border unchangeable. This decision was unpopular with the majority of the Danish population who supported the annexation. Instead of altering the border, the Danish government chose to provide financial support to the Danish minority living in South Schleswig, a support that continues to this day.

Due to the forced migrations of Germans between 1944 and 1950, Schleswig-Holstein took in almost a million refugees after the war.

Today, Schleswig-Holstein's economy is known for its agriculture, such as its Holstein cows. Its position on the Atlantic Ocean makes it a major trade point and shipbuilding site; it is also the location of the Kiel Canal. Its offshore oil wells and wind farms produce significant amounts of energy. Fishing is a major industry, and the basis of its distinctive unique local cuisine. It is a popular tourist destination for Germans and tourists across the globe. Provided by Wikipedia
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    Landgemeindeordnung für die Provinz Schleswig-Holstein vom 4. Juli 1892. (GS. S. 155).

    Published 1892
    “…Schleswig-Holstein (Germany)…”
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    Die über Zoll und innere indirecte Steuern in Schleswig-Holstein gültigen Gesetze, Verordnungen und Instructionen

    Published 1868
    “…Schleswig-Holstein (Germany)…”
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    Schleswig-Holsteinische Städte-Ordnung nach dem Gesetz vom 14. April 1869.

    Published 1869
    “…Schleswig-Holstein (Germany)…”
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    Sammlung der Gesetze, Verordnungen und Verfügungen, welche den bürgerlichen Process in Schleswig-Holstein betreffen

    Published 1868
    “…Schleswig-Holstein (Germany)…”
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    Das Selbstverwaltungsrecht der Gemeinde, des Kreises, der Provinz in seiner Anwendung auf Schleswig-Holstein

    Published 1868
    “…Schleswig-Holstein (Germany)…”
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    Gesetz, betreffend die Verfassung und Verwaltung der Städte und Flecken in der Provinz Schleswig-Holstein

    “…Schleswig-Holstein (Germany)…”
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    Schleswig-Holsteinische Landgemeindeordnung mit Erläuterungen /

    Published 1892
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    Gesetz, betreffend die Verfassung und Verwaltung der Städte und Flecken in der Provinz Schleswig-Holstein vom 14. April 1869.

    Published 1869
    “…Schleswig-Holstein (Germany)…”
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    Gesetz, betreffend die Verfassung und Verwaltung der Städte und Flecken in der Provinz Schleswig-Holstein vom 14. April 1869.

    Published 1869
    “…Schleswig-Holstein (Germany)…”
    Full Text (via LLMC)
    Electronic eBook
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